September 26, 2023

As each mother or father is aware of, the world of new child sleep is unique and unusual. Infants rack up a number of sleep total, averaging 16-18 hours a day throughout the first two weeks. But they awaken often, and infrequently sleep greater than 4 hours at a stretch, even at night time. Their inside clocks aren’t but synchronized with the exterior, 24-hour day.

father feeding newborn at night while mother sleeps

It’s a recipe for exhaustion, however understanding the science of sleep may also help you cope, and keep away from errors that may delay your baby’s growth of extra mature sleep rhythms. On this article, you’ll find out about

  • basic variations between new child sleep and grownup sleep;
  • circadian rhythms, and how one can assist your child get in sync with the pure day;
  • sleep cycles within the new child, and methods to work round them;
  • suggestions for stopping newborns from waking up; and
  • recommendation for enhancing your personal sleep.

All through, I give attention to infants beneath 4 weeks of age. For details about older infants, see my article on child sleep patterns. In case you are on the lookout for details about new child sleep security, see these science-based suggestions for lowering the danger of SIDS.

Table of Contents

Overview: What can dad and mom count on?

New child sleep could look completely disorganized, and no surprise. The sleep patterns of younger infants differ from grownup sleep in a number of essential methods.

For instance, newborns sleep at odd instances, and by no means for very lengthy. As a substitute of sleeping primarily at night time (as most older individuals do), newborns sleep at seemingly random instances all through the 24-hour day. Their sleep bouts will be very temporary (lasting only some minutes), and rarely final greater than 3-4 hours.

As well as, as soon as woke up, newborns typically have issue falling again to sleep on their very own. As I clarify elsewhere, it’s regular for everybody (adults included) to expertise many arousals throughout the night time, and, when issues are going effectively, these night time wakings usually are not disruptive. We shortly resume sleeping. Newborns expertise many night time wakings as effectively, however they have an inclination to lack the flexibility to “self-soothe” — or settle themselves again to sleep with out crying and signaling caregivers.

Furthermore, new child sleep appears to be like fairly totally different from the exterior. In contrast with grownup sleep, new child sleep will be very stressed. That’s as a result of infants spend a big portion of their sleep-time in “lively sleep,” a light-weight sleep stage characterised by

  • fluttering eyelids;
  • fast, irregular respiratory;
  • frequent twitches and physique actions; and even
  • vocalizations (similar to grunts and temporary cries).

The actions and noise can typically idiot dad and mom into pondering their infants are awakening or signalling for consideration — a complication that may lead us to intervene when it isn’t mandatory. (Learn extra about it in my article, “Child sleep phases: What’s lively sleep and quiet sleep?”)

What else do you have to be ready for? Quite a lot of particular person variation!

Newborns sleep loads, however they aren’t all the identical. As an example, throughout the first two months postpartum, the common child sleeps about 14-15 hours each 24 hours. But some dad and mom have reported a bit of as 9-10 hours, and others – particularly within the first days postpartum – have famous that their infants sleep 16-18 hours or extra (Sadeh et al 2009; Galland et al 2012; Pecora et al 2022).

Put all of it collectively, and sounds fairly chaotic, proper? However should you find out about circadian rhythms and sleep cycles, you can begin to make sense of your child’s sleep habits, and lay the groundwork for simpler nights.

Half One. Creating circadian rhythms: Why newborns appear to sleep—and wake—at erratic instances

For adults, the timing of sleep is ruled by circadian rhythms — physiological modifications that observe a 24-hour cycle. In impact, now we have an inside clock…a tiny pacemaker in our brains generally known as the “suprachiasmatic nucleus,” or SCN.  And when every thing is functioning correctly, the SCN helps make us really feel alert throughout the daytime and sleepy at night time.

How does it work? How does the SCN know what time it’s? We aren’t born with this data. The SCN isn’t “hard-wired” with pre-programmed waking and sleeping instances. As a substitute, the system depends upon environmental cues, or “zeitgebers,” to tune the interior clock. And essentially the most highly effective zeitgeber for the SCN is mild. Particularly the sunshine that enters our eyes.

Light enters the eye and sends a message to the SNC in the brain. Depiction of the NIGMS of the U.S. government.
picture by NIGMS, U.S. authorities

As an example, once you expose your self to shiny mild throughout the day, you might be serving to the SCN calibrate itself. Even in case you are feeling drained and sleep-deprived, the SCN will ahead the message to the remainder of the physique: It’s time to be awake. Conversely, when darkness falls, the SCN interprets this as a sign to your mind to supply melatonin — the hormone that triggers rest, paving the way in which for sleep.

It’s a system that permits us to adapt to modifications, together with the sudden shifts we expertise once we fly to a brand new time zone. Feeling jet lagged? So long as you expose your self to the suitable zeitgebers, you will get your circadian rhythms in sync along with your new time zone. It simply takes a bit of time – about at some point for each time zone crossed, give or take (Eastman and Burgess 2009).

Sounds hopeful, proper? And also you is likely to be forgiven for pondering it needs to be straightforward to get your new child on observe. Within the final 10 weeks earlier than start, infants appear to share the circadian rhythms of their moms. Hormones like melatonin can cross from mom to fetus by way of the placenta (Torres-Farfan et al 2006; Logan and McClung 2019), and fetal coronary heart charges synchronize with the mom’s exercise ranges – rushing up throughout the day, and slowing down at night time (Mirmiran et al 2003).

However in the meanwhile of start, this modifications. Infants are out of the blue minimize off from their moms’ intimate physiological indicators. Now they have to start to generate their very own, inside, circadian rhythms, and that is difficult for a number of causes.

1. Newborns have to feed each 3-4 hours, which awakens dad and mom and units the stage for disrupting the rhythms of the entire household.

If caregivers deal with night time wakings by turning on the lights or making noise, they ship the fallacious message to the new child mind — doubtlessly delaying their infants’ circadian growth.

2. Trendy life could lead dad and mom (nevertheless unwittingly) to make selections that deprive our infants of cues about daytime.

Our ancestors lived open air, they usually carried their infants with them as they foraged and labored. So infants had been uncovered to a number of daylight, and loads of bustling, daytime social exercise – essential zeitgebers to get the interior clock on observe (Wong et al 2022). Against this, in modern societies, newborns spend most of their lives indoors, and infants are much less more likely to “tag alongside”, or be included in, the routine actions of different relations (e.g., van Schaik et al 2020).

3. Some infants could also be getting the fallacious chemical cues.

As I clarify in one other article, breast milk accommodates numerous circadian, chemical cues that fluctuate over the 24-hour day. When infants devour method as a substitute of breast milk, they miss out on these cues. And if we bottle-feed our infants with breast milk that was pumped on the “fallacious” time of day, we is likely to be undermining the event of circadian rhythms – giving infants “sleepy” milk within the morning, or “wake-up” milk within the night.

4. The inner clock of the new child — the SCN — continues to be creating.

It has solely a small fraction of the neurons present in an grownup’s SCN, so we would count on newborns to have extra issue adjusting – even within the presence of acceptable zeitgebers.

When do infants develop mature circadian rhythms?

curious newborn leaning on mother's stomach on the couch while she smiles

Analysis means that many infants aren’t producing surges of nighttime melatonin till round 9-15 weeks postpartum (Kenneway et al 1996; Joseph et al 2015). This timing meshes with observations about how lengthy it takes infants to “settle” at night time, or sleep for at the very least 5 hours uninterrupted. In accordance with a number of research, infants take roughly 3-5 months to attain that milestone (Teng et al 2012; Sadeh et al 2009; Jenni et al 2006; Pinilla and Birch 1993).

However melatonin launch is only one organic course of affecting your child’s circadian rhythms, and a few circadian modifications could start sooner than 9 weeks. In reality, investigators have discovered that even brand-new infants can possess a bias for sleeping a bit extra at night time than throughout the day (Freudigman and Thoman 1998; Korte 2004; Matsuoka et al 1991).

What’s the takeaway? Extra science – extra analysis – is required for us to totally perceive how infants develop circadian rhythms. However given what we all know up to now, it is smart to supply your new child with the form of surroundings that’s most supportive of creating mature circadian rhythms. Listed here are some ways to contemplate.

Ideas: assist the event of circadian rhythms in infants

1. Expose your new child to pure lighting patterns.

In a single research, newborns slept longer at night time if their dad and mom noticed an everyday coverage of turning out the lights by 9pm (Iwata et al 2017). In one other research, younger infants tended to sleep longer at night time if that they had been uncovered to a number of early afternoon mild (Harrison 2004). And time spent open air would possibly make an essential distinction. Infants who go exterior expertise a lot larger daytime mild ranges than these saved indoors all day, and should develop stronger circadian rhythms in consequence (Tsai et al 2012).

2. Attempt to keep away from darkening the room throughout daytime naps.

Though I haven’t seen any managed research testing the consequences of napping within the darkness, there are good causes to query the apply. As an example, it’s fairly clear that mild can penetrate the eyelids and have an effect on circadian rhythms (Figueiro 2015), so it’s potential that napping in a darkened room might confuse the interior clock – sending the message that it’s really nighttime.

3. Make your child part of your daytime routine.

Analysis means that each day social interactions can have their very own, distinct results on circadian rhythms (Mistlberger and Skene 2004), and, when dad and mom embrace their newborns of their each day actions, infants could adapt extra quickly to the 24-hour day (Custodio et al 2007; Lorh et al 1999). One research took steady measurements of mother-infant exercise patterns for 4 months after start. Newborns who had been lively on the similar time of day as their moms had been faster to develop mature circadian rhythms (Wulff and Siegmund 2002).

4. Scale back social stimulation at night time.

An excessive amount of social stimulation at night time can ship the message that it’s time to be awake and engaged, so when your child wakes for night time time feedings, hold exercise to a minimal. Make as little noise as potential, and keep away from shifting your child round. Your aim is to maintain your child in a drowsy state, and make it straightforward for her or him to fall again to sleep.

5. Take into account the advantages of breastfeeding, and – should you pump your milk – take note of the timing of milk manufacturing.

Throughout morning classes of bottle-feeding, give your child milk that was initially expressed within the morning. At night time, give your child milk that was initially produced at night time.

Half Two. Understanding sleep phases and sleep cycles

father looks quizzically at newborn bundled in his arms

Chances are high, you’ve already heard one thing about grownup sleep cycles, and it’s useful to evaluation this with a purpose to make sense of new child sleep.

When adults first fall drowse off, we cross by way of a few mild sleep phases (NREM1 and NREM2), after which plunge right into a bout of deep sleep (NREM3), throughout which we expertise sluggish, rhythmic, mind exercise. That is the kind of sleep that the mind prioritizes once we are sleep disadvantaged. Subsequent, we make a short journey again into mild sleep earlier than getting into REM, or “fast eye motion” sleep – a stage related to excessive ranges of mind exercise, many goals, and sleep paralysis. We’re fairly unresponsive throughout REM, and we don’t transfer round. Lastly, when this REM stage is over, we both awaken, or return to mild sleep and start the cycle once more. The entire sequence will be summarized this manner:

  1. NREM1
  2. NREM2
  3. NREM3
  4. NREM2
  5. REM

For many adults, a single sleep cycle lasts between 90 – 110 minutes, and, in a typical night time, we expertise between 4 and 6 such cycles in a row. Because the night time wears on, we spend progressively extra time in NREM2 and REM, and fewer time in NREM3. Generally, most adults spend roughly 20-25% of their complete sleep time in REM, and 15-25% in deep sleep (Colten and Altevogt 2006).

Can we sleep constantly all through the night time? Not precisely. It’s regular to expertise many partial awakenings, or “arousals” — mostly throughout phases of sunshine sleep and throughout the transition between sleep phases. For instance, on common, adults of their thirties and forties expertise roughly 17 arousals per hour (Bonnet and Arand 2007). However most of those episodes are very temporary — lasting only some seconds or much less — and we don’t sometimes keep in mind them the subsequent day.

Okay. So what about newborns?

New child sleep can be marked by sleep phases and sleep cycles, however there are essential variations.

newborn sleeping -- and twitching and yawning

We are able to get a sense for this by contemplating a few of the numbers. New child sleep cycles are shorter — round 50-55 minutes — and the new child model of REM (known as “lively sleep”) takes up a a lot greater portion of sleep-time. It’s common for newborns to spend greater than half their complete sleep time in REM (Grigg-Damberger 2016). Certainly, a number of research counsel that, over the course of a 24 hour day, some newborns spent could spend as a lot as 75% of their sleep time on this lively sleep stage (e.g., Poblano et al 2007; Sadeh et al 1996). 

And there’s extra. We’ve famous how adults in REM means are fairly unresponsive and motionless, however that’s not the way it works in younger infants. As I’ve talked about within the introduction, newborns are inclined to twitch, transfer, and even cry out throughout lively sleep. They will make facial expressions, too (Grigg-Damberger 2016; Barbeau and Weiss 2017).

All that bodily exercise can jolt infants awake, which might be why newborns expertise such a excessive price of arousals throughout REM or lively sleep. In a single EEG research of younger infants, infants in REM skilled cortical arousals at a mean price of 32 per hour – a couple of arousal each two minutes (McNamara et al 2002)!

What about different sleep phases? For newborns, the principle various is a kind of non-REM known as “quiet sleep”, which – as you would possibly count on – appears to be like extra restful. Aside from the occasional twitch, infants cease thrashing round. There are not any eye actions. Respiratory and coronary heart charges grow to be common, and the speed of cortical arousals drops by almost 50% (McNamara et al 2002).

As well as, throughout the transitions between lively sleep and quiet sleep, infants typically expertise temporary intervals of “indeterminate sleep” (or “IS”), sleep that researchers discover exhausting to categorize, as a result of it combines options of REM (like actions and vocalizations) with options of non-REM (like common respiratory). How does this all come collectively?

How new child sleep phases unfold

When researchers have monitored newborns with sleep polysomnography — a way that features measuring electrical mind exercise with an EEG, they’ve noticed an everyday sequence that infants are inclined to observe after dozing off (Dereymaeker et al 2017). New child sleep doesn’t all the time observe this sample. However that is what’s typical:

  1. Energetic sleep. The newborn dozes off and begins a bout of new child REM.
  2. Indeterminate sleep. The newborn could proceed to maneuver round or vocalize throughout sleep.
  3. Quiet sleep. The newborn lastly sleeps in a extra quiet, motionless, peaceful-looking mode.
  4. Indeterminate sleep. Actions and vocalizations grow to be extra widespread once more.
  5. Energetic sleep. The newborn enters a second bout of lively REM.
  6. Temporary (60-90 second) episode of waking. Sometimes, a child will awaken from lively sleep for a minute or extra.
  7.  Indeterminate sleep. That is often the final stage of the sleep cycle – a short return to indeterminate sleep.

It’d look difficult, however we are able to sum it up in a easy approach. When newborns are sleeping, they’re more likely to twitch, transfer, and vocalize, they usually can awaken moderately simply. The exception is throughout the center of a sleep cycle, when — for round 20 minutes — infants enter quiet sleep.

Why are newborns like this?

It’s a very good query. Why is new child REM so unstable and rambunctious? And why do infants dedicate a lot of their sleep-time to REM?

Fascinating analysis means that REM serves a particular perform for younger infants. Because it seems, it isn’t solely human infants that spend a lot time in REM. This can be a widespread sample in lots of mammalian species (Frank 2020). And biologists suppose that younger infants would possibly want all that muscle-twitching to assist develop essential motor circuits within the mind. In impact, newborns could also be testing the “wiring” — discovering how totally different components of the mind are linked with physique actions and sensations (Roffwarg et al 1966; Frank 2020; Seigel 2005).

As well as, research counsel that REM is linked with bigger mind quantity and reminiscence efficiency. When infants expertise deficiencies in REM, they’re extra more likely to endure from developmental disabilities and conduct issues (Chen et al 2022). And there’s motive to suppose that sleeping mild could have a right away, protecting impact for newborns — particularly throughout episodes when infants expertise decrease oxygen ranges. When researchers have challenged sleeping infants with a sudden discount in oxygen, they’ve discovered that infants reply in a different way, relying on whether or not they’re in lively sleep or quiet sleep. Infants are slower to awaken from quiet sleep (Parslow et al 2003; Damberger et al 2007).

This, then, could clarify why newborns don’t oblige exhausted dad and mom by lapsing into lengthy intervals of deep sleep. Infants have to hold shifting and twitching for optimum mind growth. And spending lengthy stretches of time in quiet sleep could possibly be dangerous. So as a substitute, the everyday 50-55 minute new child sleep cycle contains solely about 20 minutes of quiet sleep.

What can dad and mom do to deal with new child sleep cycles?

There’s little doubt about it. Caring for a younger child will disrupt your sleep patterns — particularly throughout these first weeks postpartum. However we are able to use our data of sleep cycles — in each adults and infants — to attenuate the disruption, and keep away from pointless errors. So let’s evaluation two units of suggestions — one for caring for your child, and the opposite for caring for your self.

mother breastfeeding newborn at night

Ideas: hold your mild sleeper from waking up all the way in which

1. “Tank up” the child earlier than you fall asleep.

Whether or not you breastfeed or bottle-fed, attempt to give the child an particularly giant meal earlier than your personal bedtime. This can encourage your child to sleep longer. To study extra about this strategy, see this Parenting Science information to “Dream feeding.”

2. Don’t rush within the second you suppose your child has woke up.

As famous above, infants expertise frequent arousals, however that doesn’t imply they’re doomed to get up “all the way in which” each jiffy. Infants typically jerk, sigh, or vocalize throughout partial arousals. Should you keep away from stimulating them throughout these moments, they might return to sleep on their very own.

3. Did you soothe a crying child to sleep in your arms? Do that earlier than making an attempt to switch your child to mattress.

Infants are sometimes woke up by the act of detaching from our our bodies, however that doesn’t imply now we have to surrender on the concept of laying them down. In a current research, sleeping infants had been extra more likely to stay asleep if dad and mom waited at the very least 8.5 minutes earlier than making an attempt to switch them to a crib or cot (Ohmura et al 2022). We’d like extra analysis to corroborate this, however the outcomes are per the concept that infants start dozing in a bout of mild sleep. If we are able to wait till our infants are sleeping extra deeply, we could possibly keep away from awakening our infants once we put them to mattress. For extra data, see my article, “ soothe a crying child to sleep”.

4. Find out about bedtime routines and different ways for selling toddler sleep.

My article on toddler sleep aids contains suggestions for enhancing new child sleep, and avoiding practices which can be both unhelpful or doubtlessly hazardous.

What about you? Ideas for enhancing your personal sleep

New child sleep patterns take their toll on dad and mom. In a research monitoring the sleep patterns of moms from being pregnant by way of the postpartum interval, maternal sleep worsened after childbirth and continued to deteriorate till about 12 weeks postpartum (Kang et al 2002)–the time when new child sleep patterns start to indicate marked circadian rhythms (Nishihara et al 2000).

Twelve weeks isn’t perpetually, however it could actually seem to be it if you find yourself severely sleep restricted. As you battle to deal with new child sleep patterns, don’t neglect to take care of your self. Listed here are some suggestions that will help you cope.

very tired mother, squints at viewer, while she bottlefeeds her newborn at night

1. Do what you may to guard that first sleep cycle of the night time.

Dad and mom naturally surprise. Is it higher to sleep effectively firstly of the night time, or on the finish? And sleep science has a solution: If you’re sleep-deprived, you’re more likely to reap essentially the most advantages — rack up essentially the most intense, restorative, slow-wave sleep — throughout that first sleep cycle of the night time. That’s as a result of the mind provides NREM3 particular emphasis throughout the first sleep cycle. Thereafter, it tends to allocate ever-less time to this sleep stage. In reality, by the final sleep cycle, you’ll probably spend most of your time in mild sleep and REM, with little or no NREM3. So should you can shield just one a part of the night time from interruptions and wakings, give attention to the primary 2-3 hours.

2. Respect the ability of a 30-minute nap

If you’re operating up an unlimited sleep debt, you would possibly suppose a 30-minute nap will make little distinction to your well being. However analysis confirms that each one naps usually are not the identical. If you’re sleep disadvantaged, the mind compensates by rendering naps extra restorative than typical.

In a single research, volunteers permitted to sleep solely 2 hours at night time confirmed the everyday abnormalities of their stress hormone and immune issue chemistry. However after simply two 30-minute naps, these irregularities had been fully normalized (Faraut et al 2015b). In one other research, volunteers dealing with a 2-hour nightly routine skilled heightened ache sensitivity — a standard symptom of sleep deprivation. However as soon as once more, the impact was reversed after simply two 30-minute naps (Faraut et al 2015a). 

3. Don’t assume that it’s pointless to lie down should you don’t go to sleep. You would possibly cross right into a state of drowsy, semi-conscious sleep — and reap some advantages.

Too wired to “sleep when the child sleeps”? In that case, needless to say quiet resting is healthier than nothing. In reality, in case you are mendacity down along with your eyes closed, you is likely to be asleep with out realizing it.

In quite a few lab research, topics who had been woke up from the primary stage of sleep typically denied that they had been asleep in any respect (Dement and Vaughan 1999). A nap that consists solely of NREM1 may not assist you to enhance your response instances, however it is going to in all probability make you’re feeling much less drained. And should you handle to slide into NREM2 — even for simply 3 minutes — your nap could have recuperative results (Hayashi et al 2005).

4. Don’t play the blame recreation.

Brooding concerning the state of affairs will make it tougher so that you can go to sleep if you find yourself given the chance. And it’s wrong-headed, too: You is likely to be doing every thing you may to get extra sleep, and nonetheless be caught with a child who sleeps lower than common. Analysis means that the quantity of sleep we get at night time is strongly influenced by genetics (Touchette et al 2013), and, as talked about above, there’s numerous particular person variation amongst newborns.

5. Don’t assume that breastfeeding your new child will make you extra sleepless than method feeding.

Researchers have monitored the sleep of latest dad and mom by asking them to self-report. They’ve additionally requested dad and mom to put on wrist actigraphs — offering goal knowledge about how lengthy these drained people really sleep. And in comparisons of breastfeeding- and formula-feeding dad and mom, dad and mom who breastfeed are inclined to expertise much less nighttime sleep loss (Srimoragot et al 2022).

For instance, in a single research researchers measured maternal sleep within the final month earlier than childbirth, and as soon as once more when infants had been 4 weeks outdated. Sleep loss is already fairly dangerous throughout being pregnant, so the query was: How a lot worse did issues get after the child arrived? And the reply trusted feeding. Moms who breastfed completely had been sleeping a mean of 21 minutes much less at night time than that they had throughout late being pregnant. Against this, moms who formula-fed had been dealing with a mean nighttime sleep lower of 62 minutes (Doan et al 2014).

6. In case your child is asleep, don’t fear about altering diapers.

In case your child can’t sleep as a result of she wants a diaper change, she’ll let you recognize. And a bit of urine is unlikely to awaken her anyway. In a current experiment, researchers injected water into the diapers of sleeping infants to see if this may wake them up (Zotter et al 2007). It didn’t.

7. Get daylight and keep away from synthetic lighting at night time.

As famous above, pure lighting helps affect new child sleep patterns. But it surely additionally helps you retain your personal circadian rhythms from drifting, which is essential in case you are going keep away from insomnia and be a supply of daytime cues to your new child. So expose your self to shiny mild throughout the day, and dim the electrical lights earlier than bedtime.

8. Let a buddy or member of the family watch your child whilst you take a nap, even when this implies your breastfed child will take some meals from a bottle.

Lactation consultants typically discourage breastfeeding moms from bottle feeding infants for the primary 3-4 weeks. The fear is that supplemental feeds will result in a decreased milk provide and endanger profitable breastfeeding within the long-term.

However you want to steadiness this in opposition to the damaging results of extreme sleep restriction. Lack of sleep places dad and mom at elevated threat of sickness and postpartum despair, which is dangerous for folks and infants. In case you are on the finish of your rope, get assist.

9. Belief your instincts, and get assist once you really feel burdened

If one thing feels fallacious with you or the child, discuss to your doctor. And do not forget that your personal psychological well being is essential. Dealing with sleep deprivation may be very demanding, particularly in case your toddler appears to be particularly fussy or susceptible to crying. Look ahead to indicators of postpartum stress and postpartum despair, and attain out to others for assist.

10. Do not forget that issues will get higher

Newborns have particular sleep patterns and particular wants. However issues will begin to get higher round 12 weeks postpartum.

Extra studying related to new child sleep

For extra details about infants and sleep, see these totally referenced Parenting Science articles:

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Content material of “New child sleep patterns” final modified 1/5/23. Parts of this textual content derive from and earlier model of this text, written by the identical writer.

Picture credit for “New child sleep patterns”

title picture of father feeding new child at night time whereas mom sleeps by ArtMari / shutterstock

illustration of the SCN receiving enter, picture #6613, by the NIGMS, U.S. government, public domain

picture of mom smiling whereas mendacity down with child on a sofa by Picture Supply / istock

picture of father holding new child by wong yu liang / shutterstock

picture of new child with outstretched arms by Ursula Web page / shutterstock

picture of mom breastfeeding by Tomsickova Tatyana / shutterstock

picture of very drained new mom bottlefeeding her child by Chanintorn.v / shutterstock